During recent decades, remarkable progress has been made in under

During recent decades, remarkable progress has been made in understanding molecular mechanisms underlying SM-induced dermatotoxicity and several intra-and extracellular targets have been identified. This review argues that baicalin, a bioactive flavonoid from the roots of Scutellaria spp., could counteract different molecular and biochemical abnormalities that mediate SM dermatotoxicity and could

therefore be regarded as a promising therapeutic option for the management of SM-induced cutaneous lesions.”
“Balloon test occlusion (BTO) is crucial before sacrificing parent arteries. We proposed a simple paradigm combining clinical tolerance with venous phase technique and stump pressure ratio as a criterion for sufficient click here collateral flow. Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was considered safe for asymptomatic patients who exhibited less than 2 seconds of venous phase delay or had a stump pressure ratio greater than 60%. A total 3-MA order of 37 BTO procedures were performed on 31 patients. Twenty-three patients were monitored clinically and 3 were symptomatic. Venous phase comparison was performed on 27 patients, and 5 failed the test. The stump pressure was measured in all patients, and 7 patients failed the test. In summary, 7 patients failed

the BTO, of which 6 received high-flow bypass and 1 of these 6 were symptomatic and exhibited stump pressure ratios less than 60% in the second BTO procedure. Occlusion of the ICA was performed on 29 patients. Only 1 patient developed delayed vasospasm and brain infarction. Adequate collateral flow may be indicated by a stump ratio of 60% or greater with or without see more a high-flow bypass. Combined with clinical assessment and venous phase technique, ICA occlusion may be a safe option that does

not result in delayed ischemic complications.”
“The aim of this study was to develop novel nanoemuslion core loaded nanocapsules (NCs) with high payload of doxorubicin (DOX) and to assess its efficacy against Leishmania donovani. The low energy emulsification method was used to obtained nanoemulsion core as template, followed by stepwise addition of additional layer components protamine sulphate and sodium alginate. Zeta potential studies revealed that there was reversal in charge after each layering. NCs were characterized on the basis of size (340 nm) and entrapment efficiency (>80%). The drug release behaviour was studied by in vitro method. The NCs loaded with DOX (NCs-DOX) is completely internalized into macrophages showing improved efficacy (IC50 of formulation is almost <= 1.9-fold as compared to plain drug, p < 0.05) against intracellular amastigotes.

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