Bowtie antennas are easy to manufacture and very popular within t

Bowtie antennas are easy to manufacture and very popular within the GPR community. These antennas can be considered as an adaptation of a biconical antenna and ultimately evolved from a simple dipole (Figure 3).Figure 3.Geometric evolution from simple dipole antenna to bowtie.Biconical antennas are excellent ultra-wideband radiators, but are usually not suitable for GPR because of their broad radiation pattern (low directivity) and design, thus making them impractical for fieldwork [14]. Bowtie antennas are a natural evolution of biconical antennas and are commonly employed in GPR due to their reasonably ultra-wideband properties and overall simplicity. The input impedance of bow-tie antennas is frequency independent for a given flare angle.

This property is an attractive starting point for designing an adaptative antenna [15], but this dependence is usually eliminated by rounding the ends of the antenna [16]. There are other antenna designs that propose changes in the typical bowtie geometry in an attempt to improve different aspects of performance [17].Most bowtie antennas are designed and manufactured such that there is increasing resistance closer to the ends (Wu-King profile), which improves the resolution of the emitted wavelet (late-time ringing) (Figure 4). However, the benefits of this design are countered by a decreased in the efficiency of the antenna, with efficiency defined as the ratio of radiated power to input power. An alternative to resistive loading that does not decrease efficiency is capacity loading.

This technique is not yet widely used and still requires investigation, but interesting designs that show promising performances have been proposed; either capacitive only, or in combination with microwave absorbers acting as resistors [18,19].Figure 4.Examples of variation in the bowtie antenna Dacomitinib design. (a) Bowties existing on almost perfect electric conductor (PEC) surfaces. (b) Bowties with resistive loaded profile to improve the la
Although the accuracy of the existing numerical codes in aerospace structure simulation is increasing steadily, Aircraft Strength Testing (AST) is still considered the preferred means for reliable simulation. Airframe and component strength testing is used to measure and analyze structure parameters and performance (e.g., stress, displacement, vibration amplitude, and fatigue life) for the evaluation and validation of structure mechanical properties and theory design. Fatigue and static tests in ground testing facilities are one of the most important means of research of aircraft structure strength. Traditionally, the cable-based AST systems for aircraft structures usually involve large numbers of wires employed for communication among sensors and centralized data acquisition systems.

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