Between November 2000 and
December 2011, 60 consecutive patients (120 breasts) underwent breast reduction using the superior pedicle technique with a vertical scar (Lejour’s technique). These patients were compared with another series of 80 patients (150 breasts) who underwent breast reduction using a vertical scar mammaplasty with a central pedicle (Copcu’s technique). The characteristics of the patients were statistically similar between the two groups. Therefore, 140 patients who had undergone reduction mammaplasty were analyzed with respect to their histologic diagnoses, age, and specimen’s weight. In the superior pedicle technique, we found that 30% of these women had pathologic alterations in at least one of their breasts, whereas the pathologic
changes MK-4827 purchase in patients who underwent Copcu’s technique were 35%. In terms of tumor diagnosis, the upper quadrant excision technique (e.g. Vorinostat manufacturer Copcu’s method) may be safer. If there is no other special condition, it is better to use the pedicle technique in which the upper lateral and upper medial pole is removed. Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study.”
“Cordia americana (L.) Gottschling & J.S. Mill. is a tree which belongs to the Boraginaceae family and is native to the South of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentine, where it is commonly known as guajuvira and guayaibi. In folk medicine, the leaves are used as emollient, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory, as well as the stem has antidiarrheal and hepatoprotective effects. Preliminary phytochemical studies have shown the presence of tannins, coumarins, quinones and cinnamaldehyde derivatives. This work has investigated the leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of C. americana, in order to contribute to the pharmacognostic quality control. Samples of adult leaves and young stems were Z-DEVD-FMK solubility dmso fixed, either sectioned by freehand or embedded in glycol methacrylate and sectioned by microtome, and then the sections were stained. In parallel, microchemical
tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The leaves are alternate, simple, elliptic-obovate and slightly serrate. Anomocytic stomata occur on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib has a piano-convex cross-section and various collateral vascular bundles in closed arc. In the stem, it is encountered phellogen installed superficially and a discontinuous sclerenchymatic sheath encircling the vascular system. The phloem is stratified and cuneiform. Phenolic compounds and calcium oxalate crystals are present in the leaf and stem.”
“On the basis of preclinical and clinical evidence, statins lead to risk reduction of several types of neoplasia including breast cancer. This study is the first report on the preventive effects of fluvastatin in experimental breast cancer in vivo.