%) at 5°C, with an applied voltage of 20 V measured

%) at 5°C, with an applied voltage of 20 V measured Thiazovivin ic50 versus a Pt counter electrode. The Al substrates were then pre-anodized under mild anodization conditions at 80 V for 10 min in a 0.3 M oxalic acid aqueous solution containing 5 vol.% of ethanol at a temperature between 0°C and 3°C. Afterwards, the anodization voltage was increased at 0.08 V s−1 to reach potentiostatic conditions in the HA process, which was carried out at 140 V for 1.5 h. After the HA process, H-AAO membranes were released from the unoxidized Al substrate, which was removed by wet chemical etching in a CuCl2/HCl aqueous solution, and the membranes

were subsequently immersed for 2.5 h in 5 wt.% H3PO4 at 30°C in order to remove the alumina barrier layer at the bottom of the pores, also increasing the pore size of the H-AAO membranes. This last chemical etching step also results in a complete dissolution of the protective mild anodization

AAO layer on the top of the H-AAO membranes due to its lower chemical resistance to phosphoric acid etching compared to the H-AAO layer. Thus, the pores of the resulting H-AAO membrane are fully opened at both sides. Afterwards, the membranes were coated with a protective SiO2 conformal layer of 2 nm in thickness, deposited by ALD at 150°C from aminopropyltriethoxysilane (100°C), water (RT), and ozone (RT) that were employed as precursors and oxidant agent, respectively [23, 24]. The back side of the H-AAO templates

was coated by means of sputtering and further electrodeposition of a continuous gold layer, which serves as a working electrode in the subsequent RG7112 chemical structure electrodeposition process of multisegments of Co-Ni alloy. Multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowire Vistusertib in vitro arrays were electrochemically grown from a Watts-type bath containing 0.36 M CoSO4, 0.04 M CoCl2, 0.76 M NiSO4, 0.13 M NiCl2, and 0.73 M H3BO3. The pH of the electrolyte was adjusted to a value of 4 to 4.2 by adding 1 M NaOH. Electrodeposition processes were carried out at 35°C under potentiostatic conditions in a three-electrode electrochemical cell equipped with a Ag/AgCl reference electrode with a 3 M KCl, an insoluble Pt mesh counter electrode, and the gold-coated H-AAO template acting as the working electrode. Methane monooxygenase The composition of each individual segment of the multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowire arrays was tuned by adjusting the deposition potential in the range between −0.8 and −1.4 V versus the reference electrode. The duration of the potentiostatic deposition pulses was adjusted accordingly with the estimated deposition rate at each potential in order to obtain longitudinal segments of around 300 to 400 nm in length for each Co-Ni single segment. After the Co-Ni electrodeposition process, gold caps of about 2 μm in length were deposited in the upper part of the nanowires for protecting them from corrosion.

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