A P Table 5 suggests prioritized requirements across social, env

A.P. Table 5 suggests prioritized requirements across social, environmental, economic and management dimensions that could be applied to small producer shrimp farmers, and adapted to other species. Certification may be currently driven by European and American demands, yet two thirds of all seafood is consumed in Asia [13] and [2]. Commonly cultivated species, such as carp or crab, are not yet targeted by certification regimes. What is the role of Asian consumers in driving certification? Certified farmed fish sold within Asian markets, for example in supermarkets purchased by middle-class consumers, is an area that could be targeted for certified products of specific

species produced by small producers. This is not to suggest that there is not a role for certified shrimp, tilapia or pangasius exported to Europe, North America and Japan, but, rather, that it is important find more Copanlisib chemical structure to also consider regional certification schemes that are viable

for smaller producers with an emphasis on regional consumption patterns and food safety concerns. If certification is to enter mainstream markets, a re-visioning of how sustainability standards work for small producers is necessary. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), for example, has not certified many global South fisheries (these constitute 7% of all MSC certified fisheries), focusing on Northern industrial fisheries [69] and [2]. Yet Northern industrial fisheries, in many ways, represent ‘low hanging fruit׳ for certification schemes,

and efforts towards small producer inclusion are essential from a sustainability perspective. The significance of small producer aquaculture to enhance sustainability practices and contribute towards viable livelihood practices in the global South should not be underestimated, particularly when considering seafood production and consumption throughout Asia, and the importance of fish exports in the region. Standards need to accommodate smaller scales and the particular species cultivated at these scales (i.e., not only shrimp) or certification risks contributing to an increasingly inequitable world, with food safety and sustainability standards in the fisheries sector continuing to target only niche markets. This is not viable for the longer term, nor will it help to shift heptaminol the social and environmental impacts associated with aquaculture. The author׳s gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by Canada׳s Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC). We appreciate the insights shared by all those we interviewed, and thank Dr. Troung Van Tuyen and Ho Thi Thanh Nga for their support of this research. Thanks also to Rebecca Taves for the Vietnam fisheries production figure and the technical support for the survey analysis. We thank Dr. Peter Vandergeest for his insightful comments on a draft of this paper. This is a jointly authored paper.

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