A heart biopsy sample was obtained for immunohistochemistry staining on Day 1 of a patient’s admission
to the coronary care unit. The sample was fixed in 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, cut into serial sections, and stained immunohistochemically. Briefly, the paraffin sections were deparaffinized in xylene and hydrated through a graded alcohol series. The sections were incubated for 30 min with horse serum for blocking, after which they were immunolabeled with 1:50 diluted ENTERO-VP1 (clone#5-D8/1) antibody (Leica Biosystems, Newcastle, UK) for 1 hr at room temperature in a humidify chamber. Immunodetection was performed using a Vector Universal Saracatinib Quick Kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA, USA) as described in the manufacturer’s instructions . The brown https://www.selleckchem.com/products/nutlin-3a.html color signal was amplified by DAB substrate solution (Vector Laboratories). Blood samples were collected from patients on Day 0 and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after admission to hospital. A serum neutralization assay was performed using coxsackievirus B1–6. The blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 30 min. The sera were then separated into aliquots in cryo-tubes and stored at −80°C until analysis. Virus negative serum (n = 3) was used as a control and CVB3 positive serum (n = 5)
for viral myocarditis samples. A 96-well ELISA plate (Greiner Bio-on, Austria) was coated with peptides (100 ng/well) overnight at 4°C. After the peptide-coated plate had been blocked and washed, the sera were diluted 1:100, added to the wells and incubated for 1 hr at room temperature. The samples were then washed three times with 0.05% Tween in PBS, incubated for 1 hr with horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-mouse human IgG at room temperature, and then visualized with the substrate 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine. After incubation for 5 min, the wells were fixed with 2 N H2SO4 and the optical density measured at 450 nm with an ELISA reader (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA,
USA). Eight peptide sequences were predicted from the 854 amino acid sequences of enterovirus P1 capsid. The selected peptide sequences showed strong antigenicity and hydrophobicity. In addition, a conserved domain, Pembrolizumab research buy transmembrane, myristoylation, post-translational modification, and ubiquitous domains, were scanned to avoid non-specific reactions. Finally, predictions 2 and 7, two of eight predicted peptide sequences, were selected for CVB3 antibody detection in patients’ sera (Fig. 1A). The prediction 2 and 7 peptide sequences completely matched enterovirus VP2 and VP1, respectively (Fig. 1B). To confirm the formation of antibodies to the synthetic peptides, a rabbit was injected with 500 µg of these peptides with IFA three times every second week. 1 week after the final immunization, the rabbit was killed to collect serum, which was serially diluted for measurement of the amount of produced IgG.