27) The low significant correlation between NAOI and the Mediter

27). The low significant correlation between NAOI and the Mediterranean SST agrees with the previous findings of Skliris et al. (2012). However, the high significant correlation between the Mediterranean SST and total cloud cover agrees with the previous findings of Brierley & Fedorov (2010). In addition, the Mediterranean SST warming trend follows the negative trend of heat loss through the open water surface; this is also in agreement with the findings of Skliris et al. (2012). In the last part of the paper, future SST uncertainty over the study period is described using CMIP5 ensemble mean scenarios (i.e. RCP26, RCP45, RCP60 and RCP85). Based on direct comparison between

AVHRR SST data and the results of various CMIP5 ensemble mean scenario control runs for the examined period (i.e. 2000–2012),

the RCP26 scenario control run is PDGFR inhibitor found to be closest to the AVHRR SST data, displaying annual estimates that are 0.5, 1.6 and 0.2 °C lower for the Mediterranean Sea, AAM sub-basin and Black Sea respectively. In the 21st century, the generally expected warming of Selleckchem Autophagy inhibitor the annual Mediterranean SST ranges from 0.45 °C in the RCP26 scenario, through 1.15 °C in the RCP45 scenario and 1.42 °C in the RCP60 scenario, to 2.56 °C in the RCP85 scenario. In each scenario, the summer displayed the maximum warning trend. Moreover, the winter warming trend in the RCP85 scenario is higher than any other seasonal warming trends in the other three scenarios. The warming trends predicted using the RCP26, RCP45 and RCP60 scenarios are significantly lower than that predicted by Parry et al. (2007) using the B1 scenario. However, the significant warming predicted using the RCP85 scenario agrees with the Mediterranean SST warming that Parry et al. (2007) predicted using the A2 scenario. Generally, the SST projected for the end of the current century is controlled mainly by emission variations rather than seasonal or regional variations, indicating that management efforts should Histone demethylase emphasise emission reduction. This research was undertaken when Dr Mohamed Shaltout was a visiting scientist at the Ocean

Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. The work is a contribution to the Baltic Earth and HyMex programmes. We would like to thank Stephen Sanborn at Proper English AB for the English language editing. Financial support was gratefully received from the University of Gothenburg and the Swedish Research Council (contract No. 621-2007-3750). “
“Problems relating to thermal regimes and sea ice extent changes at the global and local scale have been discussed at length in the recent scientific literature (Matishov and Dzhenyuk, 2012, Levermann et al., 2012, Matishov et al., 2012a and Matishov et al., 2012b). Usually, it is the deviations of climatic norms and long-term hydrometeorological trends, which often do not go beyond the bounds of statistical errors, that are analysed.

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