02% of the total IgG memory B cells Therefore, a further improve

02% of the total IgG memory B cells. Therefore, a further improvement in the detection limit of the method might be necessary. Summarizing our data, we conclude that FVIII-specific memory B cells are an important target for the development of new strategies to induce FVIII-specific immune tolerance in patients with haemophilia A and FVIII inhibitors. Therefore, future efforts should focus on studying the regulation of these cells both in preclinical animal models and in patients. However, the eradication of memory B cells can only be a first step in the induction of immune tolerance in patients with FVIII inhibitors. A second step will

most likely be necessary to keep a stable selleck products immune tolerance and prevent the re-induction of anti-FVIII antibodies. The authors are grateful to all team members within Global Preclinical R&D of Baxter BioScience who have supported us in our studies. The author would also like to thank Elise Langdon-Neuner for editing this manuscript. B. M. Reipert, P. Allacher, I. buy MG-132 Lang, J. Ilas, E. M. Muchitsch and H. P. Schwarz are employees of Baxter Innovations GmbH. A. G. Pordes’ PhD research is funded by

Baxter Innovations GmbH. The other authors stated that they had no interests which might be perceived as posing a conflict or bias. “
“Summary.  Factor VIII (FVIII) levels show a considerable variability in female carriers of haemophilia A. Presently, the reasons for this are poorly understood. The aim of the study was to elucidate the influence of genetic and non-genetic parameters on FVIII plasma levels in carriers (n = 42). Results were compared with age-matched healthy women without carriership of haemophilia A (n = 42). Each carrier was tested for the family-specific mutation, ABO blood group, FVIII level, von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen and activity and C-reactive protein (CRP). FVIII levels were lower in carriers compared to non-carriers [74% (51–103) vs. 142% (109–169), P < 0.001]. No statistically significant Demeclocycline differences were observed between the two

groups with respect to VWF activity, prothrombin–time, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, body mass index (BMI), age and smoking status as well as the distribution of ABO blood groups. In non-carriers, FVIII was statistically significantly correlated with BMI, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), VWF antigen, hs-CRP and fibrinogen. In carriers, significant correlations between FVIII and APTT, VWF antigen and activity were found, whereas BMI, hs-CRP or fibrinogen did not correlate with FVIII. In non-carriers, the association of FVIII with ABO blood groups was statistically significant (P = 0.006), but not in carriers of haemophilia A (P = 0.234). The type of FVIII gene mutation did not influence FVIII levels. Carrier status is the major determinant of a carrier`s FVIII plasma level. Factors known to influence FVIII levels in the general population do not significantly affect FVIII activity in carriers, neither does the type of mutation influence FVIII levels. “

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