• Update and improve global STI prevalence and incidence estimate

• Update and improve global STI prevalence and incidence estimates – Update global curable STI estimates from 2008 and global HSV-2 infection estimates from 2003 and improve STI estimation methodology One of the most urgent needs for making an investment case for vaccines against STIs is more precise data on the burden of infection-related disease sequelae, especially in low- and middle-income settings. • Conduct a review and explore potential data sources on the incidence of PID, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and

other complications of chlamydia and gonorrhea in low-income settings – Support current efforts to assess the attributable fraction of tubal factor infertility due to chlamydia and explore expansion to other settings Meeting participants agreed that it will be extremely important to BI-2536 model data on STI epidemiology, natural history, and burden of disease, along PI3K inhibitor with data on the human and financial costs of these outcomes, to determine the theoretical impact of each potential STI vaccine. • Design models of the potential effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a future STI vaccine in the context of the observed epidemiology and disease burden – Strengthen data on burden of infection and disease, as above, to input into models

Although the key priorities for basic science research vary according to each organism, several research needs were identified that had

implications for all of the STIs. • Define appropriate animal models and other experimental systems – Outline parameters for appropriate animal models for each STI Conduct studies to explore immunological, host, and pathogen factors associated with acquisition and control of infection among well-defined cohorts of people – Utilize clinical cohorts defined by clinical or disease severity, heptaminol e.g., those with frequent versus infrequent HSV-2 shedding WHO is establishing a consensus-building process aimed at defining “preferred product characteristics” (PPCs) for vaccines addressing critical, unmet public health needs in low-income countries. PPCs are intended to help guide development of target product profiles by vaccine developers and link upstream vaccine research and development with downstream public health and programmatic considerations. • Define and reach consensus on the desired characteristics of STI vaccines that would meet priority public health and programmatic goals, especially for low-income countries, e.g., considering: – Prophylactic versus therapeutic vaccines Among the STIs discussed during the consultation, only HSV-2 vaccines have made it into clinical trials in recent years. There was a sense that the field is currently stalled in animal studies that do not always facilitate the transition of candidate vaccines into human clinical trials.

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