Indigenous (n = 263) and non-Indigenous (n = 10713) patients were

Indigenous (n = 263) and non-Indigenous (n = 10713) patients were followed until death, loss to follow-up, recovery Ferroptosis tumor of renal function or 31 December 2011. Mortality was compared using a multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model with age, gender, body mass index, smoking, primary renal disease, comorbidities, late referral and initial treatment modality

as predictive variables. Median follow-up was 26.9 months (interquartile range 11.3–48.8 months). Overall 166 Indigenous and 6265 non-Indigenous patients died during the 11-year follow-up period. Mortality rates per 100 patient-years were 23.9 for Indigenous patients and 21.2 for non-Indigenous patients. The overall 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 81%, 49% and 27% for Indigenous patients and 82%, 55% and 35% for non-Indigenous patients respectively. Indigenous patients had a 20% increased risk of mortality compared with non-Indigenous patients (adjusted hazard ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 1.41; P = 0.02). ‘Social deaths’ (predominantly dialysis

withdrawal) and cardiac deaths were the main causes of death for both groups. Among elderly dialysis patients in Australia, Indigenous status remains an important factor in predicting survival. “
“Transplant glomerulopathy (TG) is included as one of the criteria of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (c-AMR) in Banff 09 classification. In this report, we discuss the clinical and pathological analyses of cases of TG after renal transplantation. TG was diagnosed in 86 renal allograft biopsy specimens (BS) obtained selleck kinase inhibitor from 50 renal transplant patients followed up at our institute between January 2006 and October 2012. We retrospectively reviewed the data of these 86 BS and 50 patients. Among the 50 patients, 42 (84%) had a history of acute rejection (AR); of these, 30 (60%) had acute antibody-mediated rejection (a-AMR).

Among the 86 BS of TG, the TG was mild in 35 cases (cg1 in Banff classification), moderate in 28 cases (cg2) and severe in 23 cases (cg3). Peritubular capillaritis was present in 74 BS (86%), transplant glomerulitis in 65 (76%), interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in 71 (83%), thickening of the peritubular Molecular motor capillary (PTC) basement membrane in 72 (84%), and interstitial inflammation in 40 (47%). C4d deposition in the PTC was present in 49 BS (57%); 39 of these 49 BS showed diffuse C4d deposits in the PTC (C4d3), while the remaining 10 BS showed focal deposits (C4d2). Diffuse C4d deposition in the glomerular capillaries (GC) was seen in 70 BS (81%), while focal C4d deposition in the GC was seen in 9 (11%). In the assay using plastic beads coated with HLA antigen performed in 67 serum samples obtained in the peri-biopsy period, circulating ant-HLA alloantibody was detected in 55 (82%); in 33 of the 55 (49%) samples, donor-specific antibodies (DSA) were detected.

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