Tremor Fine and rapid tremors of the extremities can occur as a side effect, of antidepressants. Rates of tremor of SSRIs and venlafaxine are 3 to 5 times higher than placebo, whereas the rate of tremor in nefazodone and mirtazapine therapy is only
2 to 2.5 times higher than placebo.56 It is important to consider other agents or causes when assessing a tremor, including caffeine intake and anxiety as well as common Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical antidepressant, adjuncts such as the atypical antipsychotics. Decreasing caffeine intake and the use of benzodiazepines and ß-blockers can be helpful in the treatment of tremor. Apathy The development of apathy or indifference can be a bothersome side effect, associated with antidepressant medication. Symptoms that, can include amotivation or dullness often Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical develop slowly, and although the mechanism of this effect is unclear, it may be secondary to an inhibition of dopamine by serotonergic medications.57 Apathy is a challenging and elusive complaint, to evaluate and may be secondary to drug treatment, a residual symptom, or may herald relapse. Some, but. not. all, patients arc able to point to a distinction
between the comfortable detachment they feel when experiencing antidepressant-related apathy in the setting of an otherwise satisfactory response to treatment, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical compared with the more anguished or far-reaching anhedonia and motivational impairment they experience when depressed. If a relapse or residual symptoms are not. suspected, management strategies include dose reduction, switching to a different drug or class, typically Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical toward less serotonergic agents, or the addition of a stimulant or dopaminergic drug. Pharmacologic options include methylphenidate or Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical dextroamphetamine, bupropion, amantadine, ropinirolc, pramipexole, modafinil, or pergolide. Discontinuation syndrome Abrupt
discontinuation of SSRIs, nefazodone, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine may precipitate a discontinuation syndrome that can occur hours to days and following the termination of medication. The syndrome often includes flulike symptoms such as malaise, myalgias, nausea, dizziness, and headache, and may even include neurologic symptoms such as unsteady gait, dysesthesias such as unusual shock-like sensations, tremulousness, or vertigo.46 Risk factors for discontinuation syndrome include PI3K inhibitor abrupt cessation of short-acting agents and/or agents at. a high dose. Indeed, in some patients, some of the features of discontinuation syndrome simply from an abrupt dose reduction rather than actual cessation. As previously noted in this review, discontinuation symptoms may masquerade as side effects of treatment. Discontinuation syndrome may be minimized with the use of a gradual taper schedule.