These NVP-BEZ235 supplier connect through the rete testis to the head of the epididymis and subsequently, to the vas deferens. The volume of the testes, palpated clinically, then correlates with the functional activity of spermatogenesis, increasing with puberty. Conversely, in those clinical conditions, in which spermatogenesis is severely impaired, such as Klinefelter’s syndrome, testes volume tends to be smaller than normal.1 The process of sperm formation can be divided into three separate components: Spermatogenesis – the formation of sperm cells that have undergone first and second meiotic divisions, but have remained round in shape.2
The entire process of sperm production occurs over approximately 10 weeks.5 Spermatozoa leaving the testes and entering the epididymis do not possess the ability to fertilize eggs, but acquire this ability during their transit through the epididymis. www.selleckchem.com/screening/autophagy-signaling-compound-library.html This process is not yet completely understood, but is associated with acquisition of propulsive motility and alterations in the sperm plasma membrane and glycocalyx.6,7 Only approximately 1 cc of the ejaculate volume (normal range 2–6 cc) is made up of sperm-containing fluid of the vas deferens. The remaining ejaculate volume reflects contributions of the male accessory glands
(the prostate and seminal vesicles). The latter secretions contain prostaglandins and TGF-beta, which play potential roles in immunosuppression and in sperm transport within the female reproductive tract. If one examines the histology of the testes on cross-section, the seminiferous tubule will be seen to be surrounded by a layer of myoid cells on which the spermatogonia rest, the progenitor cells from which spermatocytes undergoing meiosis are produced.2 Sertoli cells ascend from the base of the seminiferous tubule toward its lumen, like ‘trees of a forest.’ They play roles in the endocrine regulation of the pituitary gonadotropins, as well as in the segregation of spermatids &
spermatocytes from the systemic immune system, and in the process of spermiogenesis.4 The interstitial compartment located between the seminiferous tubules contains Leydig cells as well Prostatic acid phosphatase as lymphocytes and blood vessels. Leydig cells synthesize testosterone and estradiol under the stimulus of luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted by the pituitary, which is regulated through negative feedback at the level of the pituitary and hypothalamus.1 Inhibin produced primarily by the Sertoli cells feeds back to the anterior pituitary in a negative manner, regulating the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).1,8 Primary spermatocytes originating from the spermatogonia ascend toward the tubular lumen, supported by Sertoli cells.