The scope of the study was explained to all the volunteers and ea

The scope of the study was explained to all the volunteers and each selleck one signed an informed consent form before onset of the study. Dosing schedules Trial was conducted in two sessions. On each experiment session, test formulations were swallowed on an empty stomach with a glass of water (200 mL) after overnight fasting. A light breakfast and lunch were provided after 2 and 6 h, respectively. The second test formulation was administered after a washout period of 10 days. Collection of blood samples Venous blood samples (3 mL) were collected using indwelling catheter in tubes having 5% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 h. After collection, blood samples were immediately centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for a period of 10 min.

Plasma was separated into tubes and stored at ?80??C till analysis. Calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters All the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. The concentration versus time profiles of antituberculosis drugs alone and in presence of C. carvi extract were plotted on a semi-log scale as function of time and the kinetics of absorption and elimination for all samples taken till 24 h after administration were calculated as given in the following paragraphs. The hypothetical concentration at zero hour (C0) was directly read from the graph. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) were directly read from the concentration time plots.

The half-life (t?) Carfilzomib was calculated directly from the plasma concentration profile by reading the time needed for the concentration to decrease by one-half from any arbitrary point on a log concentration: time plot.[12] Rate constant (k) was calculated from the formula: k = t?/0.693[12] The area under the time concentration curve (AUC0-24) was calculated by the trapezoidal method where the area was divided into small trapezoids and the cumulative area under curve AUC(0-24) was then calculated by the formula: Area = (?)(C1 + C2) (t2 ? t1) +??????.+ (?) (Cn? 1 + Cn) (tn ? tn? 1).[13] The volume of distribution (Vd) was obtained from the formula: Vd = dose/C0[12] Where dose is the amount of drug given orally and C0 is the concentration at zero time. The plasma clearance (Cl) was calculated from the formula: selleck bio Cl = Vd ?? k.[12] Statistical analysis The results obtained were analyzed using statistical analysis method. Paired t test was applied between two treatment groups. P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS The plasma levels of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide after test formulation A and test formulation B are shown in Table 1.

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