The anabolic actions of the intermittently administered peptides from the PTH family involve augmentation of the number of osteoblasts through stimulation of cell replication and inhibition of osteoblast apoptosis, and probably also stimulation of osteoblast activity. The molecular mechanisms underlying these anabolic effects are still poorly understood, but appear to include both direct actions on osteoblastic cells as well as indirect effects such as through stimulation learn more of IGF-1 production and downregulation of sclerostin, a physiologic antagonist of the important anabolic Wnt-β-catenin
pathway. The anabolic effects of PTH and related peptides appear to be more pronounced on cancellous than on cortical bone . The efficacy and safety of self-administered daily subcutaneous injections of 20 µg teriparatide, the dosing regimen presently
proposed for clinical use in postmenopausal osteoporosis, has been evaluated in an RCT involving 1,637 postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fracture (mean T-score, −2.6 at the lumbar spine), assigned to receive daily s.c. injections of 20 or 40 µg of teriparatide or placebo. Vertebral radiographs were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study (median duration of observation, 21 months), and serial measurements of bone mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were performed. New vertebral fractures occurred in 14% of the women in the placebo group and in 5% of the women in the 20-µg teriparatide group. The RR of fracture as compared with the placebo group was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.22–0.55). New VX 809 nonvertebral fragility fractures occurred in 6% of the women in the placebo group and in 3% of the women in the 20-µg teriparatide group (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25–0.88). Over the 21-month observation period, compared to placebo, the 20-µg teriparatide group increased BMD by 9 and 3 percentage
points in the lumbar spine Selleckchem AZD9291 and femoral neck, respectively. At the shaft of the radius, BMD decreased by 2.1 ± 4.2% in the 20-µg teriparatide group as compared to a decrease by 1.3 ± 3.3% in the placebo group (p = 0.09). Total body bone mineral content increased by 2 to 3 percentage points in the 20-µg teriparatide group as compared to placebo as measured on Hologic or Lunar DXA equipment, respectively. Nine percent of the women in the 20-µg teriparatide group reported dizziness, and 3% reported leg cramps, as compared to 6% and 1% of the women in the placebo group, respectively (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02, respectively); the frequency of these complaints was not higher than in the placebo group for the higher teriparatide dosage. A limited increase of the report of nausea and headache in the higher teriparatide dose group was not different from placebo in the 20-µg teriparatide group. Mild hypercalcemia (defined as a calcium concentration that exceeded 10.6 mg/dl) occurred at least once in 11% of the patients treated with 20 µg teriparatide daily (95% were less than 11.