Rather, the ability of oxaliplatin to induce ROS production via t

Rather, the ability of oxaliplatin to induce ROS production via the NADPH oxidase NOX2 in tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells was inhibited in antibiotic-treated mice [22] (Fig. 2). ROS production by myeloid cells was needed for oxaliplatin’s antitumor effect and oxaliplatin efficiency was decreased by inhibition of ROS by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine,

in animals deficient for the gene encoding NOX2, or following depletion of myeloid-infiltrating cells [22]. Although ROS and particularly H2O2 production were previously shown to be required for the genotoxic effect of platinum compounds [171, 172], this was studied mainly in tumor cell lines in vitro, and ROS was thus expected to be endogenously produced in the tumor cells, either Selleck ZVADFMK as mitochondrial or NADPH oxidase generated ROS. However, in the tumor microenvironment in vivo, ROS produced by tumor-associated myeloid cells is required for oxaliplatin cytotoxicity, and the microbiota has been shown to regulate the ability of oxaliplatin to induce early cytotoxicity of tumor cells by systemically priming tumor-associated myeloid cells for ROS production [22].

The effects mediated by the commensal microbiota on early responses to therapy are likely Temozolomide research buy dependent on a systemic priming effect of the preexisting microbiota composition on myeloid cells. However, both chemotherapy and radiation therapy can also modify the composition of the microbiota and exert severe toxicity on the intestinal mucosa, allowing transmucosal translocation of bacteria

and further contributing to therapy-induced dysbiosis [173, 174]. One of the most promising anticancer therapeutic approaches is the adoptive transfer of expanded, tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. In this therapeutic approach, some level Hydroxychloroquine datasheet of lympho- and myelo-ablation in the host is necessary for the survival of the incoming T cells and effectiveness of the transfer [175]. In both patients and in mice, total body irradiation (TBI) increases the efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and favors DC activation and the production of homeostatic cytokines [175, 176]. Also following TBI in mice, commensal gut bacteria have been isolated from the MLNs and elevated LPS levels were observed in the sera [175]. The beneficial effects of TBI on tumor regression was reduced by antibiotic treatment, neutralization of serum LPS using polymyxin B, or prevention of LPS signaling in mice genetically deficient for CD14 or TLR4. LPS administration to nonirradiated mice enhanced the number and function of the transferred CD8+ T cells, leading to long-term cure of mice with large transplanted tumors and enhanced autoimmune vitiligo [175].

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