PloS one 2012, 7:e31732.PubMedCrossRef 44. Cirone M, Di Renzo L, Lotti LV, Conte V, Trivedi P, Santarelli R, Gonnella R, Frati L, Faggioni A: Activation of dendritic cells by tumor
cell death. Oncoimmunology 2012, 1:1218–1219.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions Conceived the experiments: MC, RG, RS. Performed Western blot analysis: RG, AF and MG. Performed Immunofluorescence analysis: RS, RG. Interpretation of results and wrote the paper: MC, AF, GDO. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy (MIVAT), described in 2001 by Miccoli , is one of the preferred approaches used for <25-30 mL of volume thyroid. MIVAT is currently performed using 2-dimensional (2D) 30° 5 mm endoscopes that lack in stereoscopic vision and depth of field. DNA-PK inhibitor The recent introduced
4 mm 3D-endoscopes seem to overcome these limits in various surgical fields, particularly skull base, paranasal sinuses and neuro-surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and effectiveness of new 3D endoscopes applied for MIVAT procedure. Methods Patients In June 2013, three patients with multinodular goiter were enrolled to undergo 3D MIVAT with miniature stereoscopic camera (Visionsense Ltd, Petach-Tikva, Israel). This study was approved selleck chemicals by the Institutional Review Board of the National Cancer Institute Regina Elena of Rome. Inclusion Selleck Luminespib criteria to be admitted into the study were: thyroid with dominant nodule less than 3 cm in diameter, thyroid gland volume less than 25 mL, as shown in the ultrasound, no previous neck surgery or irradiation. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy according to the technique described in literature . Technology A 2 cm horizontal incision was made 1 cm below the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage, followed by the MIVAT technique . A 4 mm, 3D 0-degree stereoscopic endoscope was
used for the endoscopic part (Figure 1). The Visionsense endoscopic lens was adopted during all the procedure. It uses technology that incorporates a microscopic Unoprostone array of lenses (similar to an insect’s compound eye) in front of a single video chip on the end of the scope. Multiple small images are generated and then divided into simultaneous left and right images. Finally the viewer’s eyes simultaneously pick up two slightly different images of the same object. Figure 1 Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy. A view of the setting (endoscope, video camera and glasses) used for the 3D-MIVAT. Assessment Surgical team was composed by three surgeons trained in 2D MIVAT and with an experience of at least more than 30 MIVAT and 100 conventional thyroidectomies.