Median plasma neopterin concentrations were 6% lower in men than in women in the middle-aged group, but there were no gender differences for neopterin in the elderly. In neither age group did KTR differ between genders. However, median concentrations of Trp, Kyn, KA, HAA and XA were 10–18% higher in men than in women of the same
age (P < 0·01 for all differences) (Table 3). After adjustment for age group, renal function, BMI, physical activity and smoking, men had 10–19% higher concentrations of Trp, Kyn, KA, HAA and XA compared to women; all associations mentioned were highly significant Epigenetics Compound Library in vitro (P < 2 × 10−16) (Table 4). Plasma concentrations of neopterin, KTR and all kynurenines, except HAA, decreased significantly across quartiles of eGFR in both age groups (P for trend < 0·001) (Table 3). The same trends were found in the multivariate models adjusted for age group, gender, BMI, smoking and physical activity (P for trend < 2 × 10−16). In the multivariate
model the first quartile of eGFR was associated with 25% (99% CI: 22–28%) higher concentrations of neopterin, 24% (21–27%) higher KTR and 18–36% higher concentrations of the kynurenines, except HAA, compared to the fourth quartile (Table 4). Neopterin did not differ across BMI categories, but KTR, Trp and all kynurenines, except AA in middle-aged individuals, were higher in obese and overweight selleck compound library compared to normal-weight individuals for both age groups (Table 3). In the multivariate model, the largest differences between BMI categories were observed for HAA and decreased in magnitude in the order XA, KA, Kyn, HK, KTR and Trp, with concentrations 2–8% higher in overweight and 3–17% higher in obese than in normal-weight individuals (Table 4). In both age groups, participants with moderate physical activity had slightly higher plasma KA concentrations compared to participants with low physical activity and, among the elderly, individuals with moderate physical activity also had higher concentrations of XA (Table 3).
After multivariate adjustment, Cobimetinib chemical structure KA was 3% higher in participants with moderate compared to low physical activity (P = 1·2 × 10−4), whereas the association of moderate physical activity with XA was no longer significant (P = 0·03) (Table 4). In the middle-aged group, former smokers had lower concentrations of Kyn and XA than never smokers, whereas current smokers had lower concentrations of neopterin and all kynurenines except HK and HAA than never smokers. However, in the elderly group plasma concentrations of all kynurenines, except HK, were the highest in former smokers and the lowest in current smokers, whereas neopterin concentrations did not differ between smoking categories (Table 3). After multivariate adjustment, former smokers had 3% higher KTR and HK than never smokers.