It was demonstrated that hVISA isolates that belonged to agr-grou

It was demonstrated that hVISA BI 2536 ic50 isolates that belonged to agr-group II were defective in agr-function; conversely, these strains were strong biofilm

producers. These findings led to the hypothesis that VISA strains may exhibit diminished virulence and might have an enhanced ability to form a thick biofilm due to agr-locus inactivation [16]. The purpose of this study was to assess the clonal dynamics of hVISA bacteremia in our hospital, to carry out comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic analyses of hVISA, MRSA and MSSA blood isolates recovered in Israel, and to determine whether any additional phenotypic or genotypic characteristic could be used in the recognition of hVISA. Results The study included 24 hVISA isolates, 16 MRSA isolates and 17 MSSA isolates. All hVISA isolates were identified as such by the Etest macromethod and the hVISA phenotype was confirmed by population analysis in all cases. All MRSA and MSSA isolates did not demonstrate heteroresistance to vancomycin as shown by the etest macromethod. PFGE Selleck GDC 973 of hVISA isolates The PFGE profiles of hVISA isolates exhibited a large diversity. Of the 18 isolates examined, 15 different pulsotypes were found,

suggesting concomitant multiple sources of infection (Figure 1). In two cases similar hVISA pulsotypes between two patients were identified. Similarly, there was a great diversity in the pulsotypes of the MRSA isolates tested; only one of the MRSA pulsotypes was similar to one of the hVISA pulsotypes. Figure 1 PFGE of hVISA, MRSA and MSSA isolates. SCCmec type Fifty percent (n = 12), 21% (n very = 5) and 25% (n = 6) of the hVISA isolates carried SCCmec type I, SCCmec type II and SCCmec type V, respectively. Ten isolates that were nontypable using Olivera’s method carried

SCCmec type V by Zhang’s method, except one isolate that was nontypable by both methods (Figure 2). The distribution of SCCmec types among the16 MRSA isolates revealed SCCmec type I in 44% (n = 7), type V in 25% (n = 4), type II in 12.5% (n = 2) and type IVd in 6% (n = 1). Two isolates were nontypable using both methods. None of the hVISA or MRSA isolates with SCCmec type IV or V had antibiotic susceptibility patterns compatible with community acquisition (Table 1), as almost all isolates were resistant to gentamicin and fluoroquinolones. However, the majority of these isolates were susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.

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