Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) retards, but does not abrogate, CKD progression. Statins and spironolactone may decrease the rate of CKD progression independently or in addition to RAS inhibition.\n\nStudy buy YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 Design: Randomized open-label study.\n\nSetting & Participants: We recruited 128 patients (82 men and 46 women) with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic chronic
glomerulonephritis and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (range, 36-102 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), and urine protein-creatinine ratio ranging from 1.1-5.2 g/g.\n\nIntervention: Intensive therapy (a combination of RAS inhibitors [angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors plus angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs] plus a high-dose statin and spironolactone) versus conventional S3I-201 cost therapy (a regimen based on ACE inhibitors with a low-dose statin).\n\nOutcomes: Changes in eGFR, proteinuria, and adverse events after 3 years of therapy.\n\nResults: With intensive therapy, urine protein-creatinine ratio decreased from 2.65 (range, 1.1-5.2) to 0.45(0.14-1.51) g/g (P < 0.001)
and eGFR did not significantly change over time (64.6 +/- 2.1 vs 62.9 +/- 2.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). With conventional therapy, urine protein-creatinine ratio decreased from 2.60 (range, 1.32-5.4) to 1.23(0.36-3.42) g/g (P < 0.001) and eGFR decreased from 62.5 +/- 1.7 to 55.8 +/- 1.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P < 0.001). Comparison of the decreases in proteinuria and GFR between intensive versus conventional therapy was significantly different starting in the 1st and 12th months, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was lower with intensive than conventional therapy (113.5 +/- 1.4 vs 122.7 +/- 1.2 mm Hg; P < 0.01). We found an inverse selleck screening library relationship between percentage of decrease in proteinuria and change in eGFR (P < 0.001). Patients on intensive therapy were more likely to develop adverse events, such as hyperkalemia (9 vs 3 patients
in the conventional therapy group) and discontinue therapy (15 vs 8 patients in the conventional therapy group).\n\nLimitations: Open-label design.\n\nConclusions: A more intensive therapy that includes a combination of ACE inhibitors and ARBs plus high-dose statins and spironolactone may retard CKD progression more effectively than conventional therapy based on ACE inhibitors plus low-dose statin, but may lead to more adverse effects and discontinuation of therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 55:671-681. (C) 2010 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.”
“Biofouling in water treatment processes represents one of the most frequent causes of plant performance decline. Investigation of clogged membranes (reverse osmosis membranes, microfiltration membranes and ultrafiltration membranes) is generally performed on fresh membranes. In the present study, a multidisciplinary autopsy of a reverse osmosis membrane (ROM) was conducted.