Forty-seven patients with anti-GBM disease were enrolled in this

Forty-seven patients with anti-GBM disease were enrolled in this study. Forty-eight healthy individuals were used as normal controls. The levels of serum BAFF and APRIL were assessed using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. The association between the levels of serum BAFF and APRIL, and the clinical and pathological parameters were further evaluated. The serum levels MK-2206 cost of BAFF and APRIL in patients with anti-GBM disease were significantly

higher than that in normal controls (12.3 ± 14.1 ng/mL vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 ng/mL, P < 0.001; 19.1 ± 22.9 ng/mL vs. 1.6 ± 4.6 ng/mL, P < 0.001), respectively. The levels of serum APRIL were correlated with the titres of anti-GBM antibodies (r = 0.347, P = 0.041), and the levels of serum BAFF were associated with the percentage of glomeruli with crescents (r = 0.482, P = 0.015) in patients with anti-GBM disease. The levels of serum BAFF and APRIL were raised in patients with anti-GBM disease and might

be associated with disease activity and kidney damage. “
“Angiotensin-(1–7) (Ang-(1–7)) opposes angiotensin-II-induced cell growth, matrix accumulation and fibrosis in cardiac tissue. However, the role of Ang-(1–7) in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis is uncertain. This study observed the effects of Ang-(1–7), on its own or in combination with losartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, on five-sixths AZD6738 price nephrectomized rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent five-sixths nephrectomy, Liothyronine Sodium and then were either untreated, treated with Ang-(1–7), treated with losartan, or treated with a combination therapy of Ang-(1–7) and

losartan. After 8 weeks, renal function was assessed by measuring systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine and proteinuria. The effect of nephrectomy on the renin–angiotensin system was examined by measuring plasma levels of Ang-II and Ang-(1–7). The extent of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis was assessed by periodic acid-Schiff staining and Masson-trichrome staining. The expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibronectin and angiopoietins-Tie-2 was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. In the groups of treated rats, serum creatinine, proteinuria and markers of glomerulosclerosis, such as fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, were ameliorated compared with the untreated, nephrectomized rats. Plasma Ang-(1–7) levels were elevated in all treatment groups, but the plasma Ang-II levels were reduced in the Ang-(1–7)-treated group and the combination therapy group. The ratio of Ang-1/Ang-2 was increased in the combination therapy group compared with two other treatment groups. Ang-(1–7) ameliorated the renal injury of nephrectomized rats. The combination of Ang-(1–7) treatment alongside losartan exerted a superior effect to that of Ang-(1–7) alone on regression of glomerulosclerosis.

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