Fakhr et al  found that PFGE provided greater strain differentiation among S. Typhimurium isolates compared to MLST analysis for the genes manB, pduF, glnA, and spaM and found no nucleotide differences among 85 strains tested from cattle. The study suggested that genes of greater variation
were necessary to ensure the power of MLST as a differentiation tool such as those of virulence [5, 23]. In a recent study Liu et al  noted that an MLST analysis based on the two genes sseL and fimH for S. enterica species was congruent with serotypes. An alternative approach to MLST housekeeping genes has been the use of an MLST associated with virulence genes such as MVLST [5, 6, 23] which has GSK3235025 concentration proven mTOR inhibitor drugs successful for Listeria spp [25, 26], but currently does not appear to be as well established for Salmonella spp or other gram negative organisms. Molecular profiling of Salmonella has
been carried out by a number of authors in an attempt to determine strain types and their distribution in human or animal hosts and relatedness [7, 27–32]. Such approaches have been useful in assessing the role of specific serotypes in human and animal disease and assessing overlap between the hosts. In this study, the molecular profiles and characteristics of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg from humans and animals were assessed to determine the distribution of the strain type across the different host species and to assess the relatedness of S. Senftenberg strains circulating in animals and humans. Materials and methods Isolates
studied All animal isolates of S. enterica Senftenberg Selleck HMPL-504 used in this study were obtained from the lab collection of Logue, the North Dakota Veterinary Diagnostic Lab (ND VDL, Fargo, ND), and the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL, Ames, IA) and represented strains from ND and various states in the Selleckchem Rapamycin US. Human isolates S. Senftenberg were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, Atlanta, GA) and represented a collection of isolates from human cases of salmonellosis across the United States. All isolates were stored frozen at -80°C in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI, Difco, Sparks, MD) broth supplemented with 20% glycerol. Passaging of the strains was kept to a minimum in order to preserve isolate integrity. In total, 71 isolates from animals, 22 from humans and 5 isolates from feed and goose down were used in this study. NARMS analysis All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the broth microdilution method and the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring Scheme (NARMS) panels (CMV1AGNF, Sensititre®, Trek Diagnostics, Cleveland, OH), according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute  guidelines. The panel tested antimicrobial susceptibility to the following antimicrobials: amikacin (0.5 – 64 μg/ml), ampicillin (1 – 32 μg/ml), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1/0.5 – 32/16 μg/ml), ceftriaxone (0.