of specific ESG glycosaminoglycan components was used to directly elucidate the role of the ESG in EC mechano-sensing and transduction by measuring the shear-induced productions of nitric oxide Evofosfamide and prostacyclin, two characteristic responses of the ECs to the flow. The unique location, composition, and structure of the ESG determine its role in EC mechano-sensing and transduction. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2013, 5:381390. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1211 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.”
“Renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerves are involved in the regulation of blood pressure and have a pathophysiological role in hypertension. Renal sympathetic denervation is a novel therapeutic technique for the treatment
of patients with resistant hypertension. Clinical trials of renal sympathetic denervation have shown significant reductions in blood pressure in these patients. Renal sympathetic denervation also reduces heart rate, which is a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. Conditions that are comorbid with hypertension, such as heart failure and myocardial hypertrophy, obstructive sleep apnoea, atrial fibrillation, renal THZ1 dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome are closely associated with enhanced sympathetic activity. In experimental models and case-control studies, renal denervation has had beneficial effects on these conditions. Renal denervation could become a commonly used procedure to treat resistant hypertension and chronic diseases associated with enhanced sympathetic activation. Current work is focused on refining the techniques and interventional devices to AZD5582 in vivo provide safe and effective renal sympathetic denervation. Controlled studies in patients with mild-to-moderate, nonresistant hypertension and comorbid conditions such as heart failure, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnoea, and arrhythmias are needed to investigate the capability of renal sympathetic denervation to improve cardiovascular outcomes.”
“Purpose of review
Ultrasonography, MRI, and PET are increasingly studied in large-vessel vasculitis.
They have broadened our knowledge on these disorders and have a place in the diagnostic approach of these patients.
Temporal artery ultrasonography can be used to guide the surgeon to that artery segment with the clearest ‘halo’ sign to perform a biopsy, or in experienced hands can even replace biopsy. The distal subclavian, axillary, and brachial arteries can also be examined. High-resolution MRI depicts superficial cranial and extracranial involvement patterns in giant cell arteritis (GCA). Contrast enhancement is prominent in active inflammation and decreases under successful steroid therapy. Presence of aortic complications such as aneurysm or dissection can be ruled out within the same investigation.