Analogous to our findings with CXCR3−/− mice, CCR2−/− and CCR5−/−

Analogous to our findings with CXCR3−/− mice, CCR2−/− and CCR5−/− mice remain susceptible to EAE [40, 41]. Whether this is due to the adoption of compensatory trafficking pathways by the single knockout mice will only be determined by future experiments with double or triple knockouts. The redundancy of chemokines in the EAE model is further illustrated

by a previous publication showing that simultaneous blockade of CXCR3 and CXCR4 was therapeutically efficacious in adoptively transferred EAE in comparison to targeting CXCR3 alone [42]. In conclusion, the strategy of antagonizing individual chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in individuals with MS, including those patients with this website a skewed

effector population, might be undermined by inherent redundancies in chemokine networks. The ideal therapeutic target would be a molecule that is exclusively expressed on autoimmune effector cells and that is critical for pathogenicity. Until such a selleck screening library molecule is identified, the treatment of autoimmune disease will have to balance therapeutic effectiveness against the untoward consequences of immunosuppression. About 8- to 12-week-old C57BL/6 and CD45.1 congenic B6 Ly5.2/Cr mice were obtained from NCI Frederick (Frederick, MD, USA). Cxcr3−/− mice were provided by C. Gerard, the generation and characterization of which were described previously [43]. CXCL10−/− mice were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA). Mice were housed in micro-isolator cages under specific pathogen-free, barrier facility conditions. All procedures were conducted in strict accordance with protocols approved by the University of Michigan Committee on Use and Care of Animals. Active induction

of EAE involved s.c. injection of 100 μg MOG35–55 MEVGWYRSP-FSRVVHLYRNGK (Biosynthesis, Lewisville, TX, USA) in CFA (Difco, Detroit, MI, USA) containing 4 mg/mL heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Difco). Each mouse also received 300 ng of Bordetella PT(List Biological Laboratories) Rebamipide i.p. on day 0 and 2 postimmunization. For passive induction, mice were immunized as above, but without administration of PT. Ten days postimmunization, a single-cell suspension was prepared from pooled draining inguinal, axillary, and brachial LNs and passed through a 70 μm cell strainer (BD Falcon, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). LN cells were cultured in vitro for 4 days with MOG35–55 under conditions favorable to the generation of Th1 cells (rmIL-12, 6 ng/mL; rmIFN-γ, 2 ng/mL; anti-IL-4 (clone 11B11), 10 μg/mL) or Th17 cells (rmIL-1α, 10 ng/mL; rmIL-23, 8 ng/mL; anti-IL-4 (clone 11B11), 10 μg/mL; anti-IFN-γ (clone XMG1.2) 10 μg/mL). After 4 days culture, LN cells were collected and 2 × 106 CD4+ T cells injected i.p. in sterile PBS.

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