9–11 Some studies

showed that birthweight had a U-shaped

9–11 Some studies

showed that birthweight had a U-shaped association with the prevalence of proteinuria in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients,12,13 which possibly resulted from the exposure to a high glucose environment for high birthweight and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) induced renal dysplasia for LBW patients.13 In addition, not only low nephron number per se but also consequently elevated susceptibility of kidney damage Midostaurin concentration from diabetes and obesity increases the risk of proteinuria.14,15 However, some other studies did not reveal the association between LBW and proteinuria.16–20 The survivor bias which resulted from the higher mortality of LBW patients possibly decreased the correlation intensity between LBW and proteinuria. In addition, ratio of birthweight to birth length had more significant correlation with proteinuria and therefore was a better marker of IUGR than birthweight.18 Someone not only recommended seeking a more accurate marker

of IUGR, but also emphasized that environmental factors had a more important influence on proteinuria.19 Low birthweight neonates had a higher level of serum creatinine and a slower and later decrease than normal birthweight (NBW) counterparts, which possibly resulted from their inferior glomerular filtration capacity21 and more prominent reabsorption of creatinine from the immature tubular barrier.22 For EPZ-6438 research buy healthy people, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is gradually Bay 11-7085 increased at an early

stage of life and then maintains at a certain level until adulthood.23 However, for lack of related longitudinal studies, the changed process of GFR in LBW people is unknown. One study found that the creatinine level of LBW infants was comparable to that of NBW infants within several weeks after birth,24 however, another study showed that LBW infants had lower GFR than NBW infants until 9 months after birth.25 There have been only two small-scale studies on the influence of LBW on GFR in childhood. Vanpee et al. found that GFR was not different between LBW and NBW children at the age of 8 years,25 whereas Rodriguez-Soriano et al. observed a lower GFR and poorer tubular function in LBW children aged of 6–12 years.26 Several studies revealed that GFR of LBW people was not lower than that of NBW people.27–29 Although one study revealed that LBW people had lower GFR,30 this difference disappeared after adjustment by body surface area.31 Fagerudd found that LBW diabetes patients had similar GFR to NBW counterparts but lower GFR than high birthweight counterparts.20 One longitudinal study with a duration of 8–20 years observed 168 type 1 diabetes sufferers, and the results showed that LBW was not associated with GFR decrease.32 However, the HUNT II study observed 7547 youths aged 20–30 years and revealed that the risk of renal function decrease was increased 1.6–2.4 times in those LBW people.

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