000 UI de D2 ou D3 para se alcançarem níveis plasmáticos de 25(OH

000 UI de D2 ou D3 para se alcançarem níveis plasmáticos de 25(OH)D superiores a 30 ng/ml, seguidos por terapia de manutenção de 1.500‐2.000 UI/dia. Já em pacientes obesos, com síndromes de má‐absorção ou usuários de medicações que interfiram com o metabolismo da vitamina D, as doses sugeridas foram bem mais elevadas (6.000‐10.000 UI/dia) para se alcançarem níveis check details de suficiência, seguidas por terapia de manutenção de 3.000‐6.000 UI/dia. Estratégia opcional para pacientes institucionalizados seria a administração de 50.000 UI de vitamina D2 três vezes por semana, durante um mês, ou 100.000 UI da mesma vitamina,

a cada quatro meses. 8 A vitamina D pode ser ingerida em jejum ou com uma refeição e não requer GPCR Compound Library cell line dieta rica em gordura para sua absorção. Pode ser administrada três vezes ao ano, uma vez por semana ou, ainda, uma vez ao dia e mostra ser efetiva na manutenção sérica

de níveis de suficiência tanto em crianças como em adultos. Os usuários regulares da dose de 50.000 UI de D2, uma vez por semana, durante oito semanas, que não mostrarem elevação de seus níveis plasmáticos deverão ter excluído o diagnóstico de doenças que cursem com má‐absorção, tais como a doença celíaca ou a fibrose cística oculta.8 A maior fonte de síntese de vitamina D, em humanos, é a epiderme. Sua produção tem início com uma reação não enzimática mediada por raios ultravioleta B(UVB), que converte 7‐dehidrocolesterol em pré‐vitamina D3. Ainda na pele, a pré‐vitamina D3 é convertida em vitamina D3 por reação de isomerização térmica. Após ganhar a circulação, a vitamina D3, por ação do citocromo P450, em nível hepático, se converte em 25 hidroxivitamina D3 25(OH)D3. Esse último é o metabólito mais estável e com meia‐vida

mais longa e serve como ferramenta na avaliação do status corporal dessa vitamina, quer tenha sido ingerida ou sintetizada na pele. 10 No rim, a 25(OH)D3 é metabolizada pela enzima 25‐hidroxivitamina D ‐1 α‐hidroxilase (CYP27B1) para Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II sua forma ativa (1,25[OH]2D3), a qual exerce seus efeitos por meio de receptores esteroidais nucleares. Essa enzima, a CYP27B1, está presente principalmente, mas não somente, nas células tubulares proximais dos rins. Sua síntese renal é também regulada por outros hormônios. Tem sua estimulação primariamente pelo PTH e sua inibição pelo fator de crescimento fibroblástico circulante 23 (FGF23), produzido por osteócitos.10 As características da 1,25[OH]2D3 são as mesmas de um hormônio e, consequentemente, a 25(OH)D3 é um pró‐hormônio, em vez de uma verdadeira vitamina.6 A 1,25(OH)2D3 tem alta afinidade com o receptor de vitamina D (VDR) em tecidos alvos, nos quais atua modulando a expressão de genes relacionados. Sua concentração sanguínea é de aproximadamente 0,1% da quantidade de seu pró‐hormônio.

, 2009 and dos Santos et al , 2011a) Therefore, the hydrophobic

, 2009 and dos Santos et al., 2011a). Therefore, the hydrophobic channel was demonstrated to be involved in one of the steps required for Lys49-PLA2s action mechanism (dos Santos et al., 2009 and dos Santos et al., 2011a). It is also interesting to highlight that if the alternative dimer is considered as biological dimer, the myotoxic sites from both monomers are aligned at the same plane (side by side) for the complexed structures (active state) and an interchain Tyr119-Tyr119 hydrogen bond is formed (Table 3) which increasing the toxin potency (dos Santos et al., 2009). The sequence alignment of bothropic Lys49-PLA2s (Fig. 4) shows that the residues of the myotoxic site (Lys20, Lys115 C646 and Arg118) and Tyr119 are

conserved in MjTX-II, however, the interchain Tyr119–Tyr119 hydrogen bond is not present in its dimeric interface (these residues are at a distance of 4.7 Å). Analyzing MjTX-II sequence (Fig. 4) it is possible to observe that the C-terminal region of this toxin presents some particularities as an insertion of a residue at position 120 and a mutation at position 121 (His→Tyr) if compared to other bothropic Lys49-PLA2s whose structures are known. Therefore, Asn120 insertion may be the responsible for a diversion of this region as evidenced by the lack of Tyr119-Tyr119 RGFP966 in vitro hydrogen bond which is probably compensated by the creation of two new hydrogen bonds with the participation

of Tyr121 residue (Table 3). Then, taking into account these facts (Asn120 insertion and mutations of residues 32 and 121) and their consequences to PEG4Ks mode of binding,

it is reasonable to suggest that MjTX-II may require specific or modified inhibitors when compared to molecules that are able to inhibit bothropic Lys49-PLA2s by interaction with their hydrophobic channels. This is due to the different profile of ligand binding presented at this region TCL (Fig. 1C.) and may have implications when considering structure-based ligand design for Lys49-PLA2s. As discussed in the last two sections, MjTX-II structure was solved in the oligomeric assembly known as “alternative dimer” given that it has higher probability of occurrence in solution due to bioinformatic analyses and also due to several experimental and functional reasons (dos Santos et al., 2011a, dos Santos et al., 2009, Fernandes et al., 2010, Marchi-Salvador et al., 2009, Murakami et al., 2005 and Murakami et al., 2007). However, as discussed in a recent review in this field (Lomonte and Rangel, 2012), this subject is still controversial for some authors. Although no experiment was able to definitively prove the correct assembly adopted by Lys49-PLA2s toxins, MjTX-II structure added an important experimental evidence for the choice of the alternative dimer as the probable quaternary assembly found in solution for these proteins. As shown in the Fig. 2, the PEG 3 binds simultaneously to both monomers of the protein.

05) The growth of P donghaiense was suppressed very significant

05). The growth of P. donghaiense was suppressed very significantly in the co-culture from LGS onwards, and its cell densities at EGS and SGS were 75 × 104 and 36 × 104 cells mL− 1, only approximately 13% and 3% of those in monoculture(P < 0.0001) ( Figure 1c). When the initial cell densities of both

P. tricornutum and P. donghaiense were set at 1.0 × 105 cells mL− 1, the growths of both P. tricornutum and P. donghaiense in the co-culture INK 128 were significantly inhibited, their cell densities being about 63% and 15% of those in the monoculture at SGS (P < 0.0001) (Figure d). Several studies have hinted that the composition and dynamics of algal communities may be influenced by allelopathy among algal species (Legrand et al. 2003). The earlier studies on allelopathy among algae concentrated on field observations. For example, Keating (1977) observed the allelopathic influence of successors and their predecessors on the blue-green bloom sequence in Linsley Pond, a eutrophic lake, over a period of three years. In eutrophic lakes, diatom bloom populations varied inversely with the levels of the preceding blue-green algal populations, and blue-green algal dominance could be attributed to the allelopathic

effects (Keating 1978). In the current study, we conducted laboratory experiments under controlled conditions to exclude the effects of environmental factor variation. Besides, in order to reveal the growth and interactive effects between P. tricornutum and P. donghaiense, Sirolimus chemical structure we used their axenic strains. That is because previous bi-algal culture experiments indicated that bacteria were either directly or indirectly associated with algal toxin production, and that bacteria exerted some influence in the interaction between microalgal species ( Tarutani et al. 2000). Nagasaki et al. (1994) showed that bacterial attack

and viral infection might play a role in the algal bloom initiation, succession or termination. Therefore, in our study, the allelopathic activity of microalgae might be the most likely explanation for the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of Doxacurium chloride one species on the other co-cultured one. Our laboratory results showed that the growth and interactive effects between P. tricornutum and P. donghaiense were dependent on the initial cell density of each species: a higher initial cell density generally resulted in stronger allelopathic effects between them. In addition, when the initial cell densities of P. tricornutum and P. donghaiense were set at 1.0 × 104 and 1.0 × 105 cells mL− 1 respectively, growth promotion effects of P. tricornutum on P. donghaiense were detected at LGS, implying that allelopathic interactions were very complex and also time-dependent. We did not attempt to delve into the nature of this stimulation, but it could be assumed that some stimulatory compounds were excreted by P. tricornutum and that P.

Proteomics research needs more than just a translation road bridg

Proteomics research needs more than just a translation road bridge from discoveries to cures. Rather, it requires networks of road junctions to fill all the gaps and to allow cross-fertilization and synergies. Translational research and translational proteomics are more than just interesting concepts and hot keywords, they are supposed

to improve the quality of people’s lives. With the launch of Translational Proteomics, we want to help the scientific and medical communities overcome the challenges on the long path from discovery to patient care. By focusing on connecting basic proteomics research to its ultimate clinical selleck compound applications, the Journal will provide a space for publications detailing proteomics experiments, from early discovery to validation and the bedside. Translational Proteomics’ uniqueness resides in its intent to publish multi-disciplinary studies as single papers, with no loss of information – studies that today would most likely be broken up into two or three separate papers. The Journal covers all areas of human proteomics using multi-disciplinary approaches to untangle complex disease processes. Emphasis is clearly placed on linking basic science

to clinical research, for the rapid dissemination of novel discoveries. A special effort will be made to favour the acceleration of the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers associated with multifactorial human disorders. This will aid the earliest possible

diagnosis, stratification, prognosis and monitoring of diseases, and the prediction of drug responses. Understanding of human diseases is still very limited because scientists MDV3100 in vitro have been confronted with some enormous challenges, such as wide genetic polymorphism, an extremely large heterogeneity of diseases (e.g., diabetes, cancer, infections), as well as strict societal constraints (ethics, funds, time). Why do two patients with the same disease, and identical clinical and laboratory parameters, respond differently to the same treatment? Why do they experience different side effects? This complexity has led Selleckchem Abiraterone many scientists to use animal models to predict drug outcomes, mimicking human diseases as much as possible, but simplifying the biological background. These models are priceless sources of information, but unfortunately many such “unpolluted” studies fail when applied to humans. As a result, today we know much more about effective treatments of human diseases on mouse models than on humans themselves. This highlights the species-specific properties and the huge diversity in biological systems. Most scientists performing basic science today would like to bring their biomedical discoveries to as many patients as possible. However, the important clinical development needed to push such studies to larger trials, is often beyond the capacity of their universities or hospitals.

Epithelial models can be constructed from animal cells (commonly

Epithelial models can be constructed from animal cells (commonly SIRC cells ( Ubels and Clousing, 2005)) such as in the STE test, human epidermal cells, or human corneal cells, which are usually cultured in defined medium on cell culture membranes using air-lifting techniques ( Alépée et al., 2013, Cotovio et al., 2007, Kaluzhny et al., 2011 and Matsuda et al., 2009) to create a 3D stratified epithelium. Cytotoxicity following topical exposure is generally used as an endpoint ( Curren and Harbell, 2002), and epithelial models have the potential to identify non-classified/non-irritating substances

from mild irritants ( Scott et al., 2010). Time-to-toxicity measurements (ET50), which account for the time required

for a 50% reduction in cell or tissue viability following exposure when compared to a negative control ( Kaluzhny this website et al., 2011 and Osborne et al., 1995), are often used as an endpoint. Although human primary epithelial cells have been check details investigated ( Tripathi and Tripathi, 1988, Tripathi and Tripathi, 1989 and Tripathi et al., 1989), their use is limited in toxicology models due to the lack of availability of human corneas and difficulties associated with expanding and passaging primary epithelial cells. Thus, rabbit corneal cells or mouse fibroblasts are often utilized as an alternative source. Matsuda et al. (2009) cultured rabbit corneal epithelium (RCE) cells onto collagen hydrogels, which acts as a perabasal membrane. To validate the model 30 chemicals with known degrees of eye irritation (from Draize testing), ranging from non-irritating to severely irritating were tested. Inconsistencies buy Gefitinib occurred when testing acids and alcohols, which was thought to be due to a pH dilution, the volatility of the alcohol,

or a reaction with the buffer solution prior to testing (Matsuda et al., 2009). The MatTek Corporation developed a commercially available 3D corneal epithelial model (OCL-200) based upon human derived epidermal keratinocytes from neonatal human foreskin (McLaughlin et al., 2009 and Sheasgreen et al., 2009) grown on cell-culture inserts in serum-free media, to form a stratified, squamous epithelium, marketed as EpiOcular™. Test substances are directly applied to the models, and cytotoxicity is measured using MTT. Substances that cause the most rapid injury to cells generally have higher irritation potentials (Matsuda et al., 2009). The original protocol has since been developed into a single time-point protocol known as the EpiOcular™ eye irritation test (EIT) (Pfannenbecker et al., 2012). If the treated cells have viability greater than 60% post treatment then the test substance is classified as non-irritating. EpiOcular™ is currently used by numerous contract research laboratories, industrial cosmetic, personal care, and household chemical companies in place of Draize testing for product development.

A associação de DC com DM tipo 1 está bem estabelecida A prevalê

A associação de DC com DM tipo 1 está bem estabelecida. A prevalência de DC em adultos ou crianças com DM tipo 1 oscila entre 4,4‐11%24 e em 90% dos casos o diagnóstico de diabetes precedia check details o de DC. A fisiopatologia desta relação não está completamente esclarecida. Estudos genéticos mostram que ambas as patologias partilham semelhanças nos haplotipos

bem como noutros «loci» genéticos, sugerindo a existência de um mecanismo autoimune. A ocorrência entre DC e patologia tiroideia também se encontra bem documentada. Existe uma maior prevalência de tiroidite de Hashimoto e de doença de Graves em pacientes com DC, embora o contrário também se verifique, sendo a DC o distúrbio autoimune mais frequentemente associado à tiroidite autoimune. Luft et al. reportaram uma prevalência de DC nos doentes com patologia reumática: 12% na síndrome de Sjogren; 7% na esclerose sistémica; 6% no lúpus eritematoso sistémico e 2% na artrite reumatoide 10. Mais estudos prospetivos são necessários

para esclarecer a relação entre estas entidades, assim como o potencial efeito da dieta sem glúten nessa associação. Estão descritos 12 casos de associação entre DC e PTI11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22, incluindo um caso de uma paciente jovem com uma combinação this website única de 7 doenças autoimunes17. O primeiro caso descrito de associação entre DC e PTI data de 1981, relatando uma criança Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase com deficiência de IgA, DC, PTI, tiroidite autoimune e anemia perniciosa11. Trombocitopenia associada a DC tem sido descrita em associação com queratoconjuntivite e coroidopatia, sugerindo uma fisiopatologia autoimune12 and 13. Em 1996 foi publicado

o primeiro caso de associação entre DC, PTI e hepatite granulomatosa18 e em 2003 foi descrita a associação de DC, PTI e miosite de corpos de inclusão19, sugerindo a existência de predisposição genética para disfunção imune nesses doentes. Pensa‐se ainda que a prevalência de doenças autoimunes em pacientes com DC está relacionada com a duração de exposição ao glúten. Tem sido investigado o efeito da dieta sem glúten na incidência e prognóstico de inúmeras patologias autoimunes25. Ventura et al. estudaram 90 doentes com DC e verificaram que a prevalência de anticorpos relacionados com DM tipo 1 e com patologia tiroideia, na altura do diagnóstico, era de 11,1 e 14,4%, respetivamente, e que após 2 anos de dieta sem glúten estes anticorpos séricos haviam desaparecido 26. Um estudo realizado em França demonstrou que a incidência de patologia autoimune foi menor no grupo de doentes com o diagnóstico de DC que cumpria dieta sem glúten, comparativamente com o grupo que não efetuava dieta, numa proporção de 5,4/1.000 vs 11,3/1.000 doentes/ano27. O interesse deste caso está relacionado não só com a associação rara entre DC e PTI, mas também com o aparecimento de PTI após reintrodução do glúten.

Because the Interaction Principal Component Axis 2 (IPCA2) mean s

Because the Interaction Principal Component Axis 2 (IPCA2) mean squares (MS) were non-significant in the AMMI analysis for all traits, the AMMI1 model was adopted and biplots of the IPCA1 scores versus the genotype and environment means were presented for each trait [3] and [20]. The biplots were used to assess the performance and interaction patterns of the genotypes and environments. Based on the biplots, genotypes with broad selleck compound library or specific adaptation to target agro-ecologies or environments for the traits

evaluated were identified. Stability of performance across locations is not the only factor for selection, as the most stable genotypes do not necessarily give the best performance for the traits of interest. Farshadfar [20] developed selleck chemicals the genotype selection index (GSI) which simultaneously selects for performance and stability. The GSI for each genotype is calculated as the sum of the corresponding rankings for mean performance and the AMMI stability value (ASV). The ASV is a measure of the stability of a genotype (the lower the value

the greater the stability) based on weighted IPCA1 and IPCA2 scores [21]. However, given that the IPCA2 axis was non-significant for all the traits in this study, the GSI was modified, with ranking based on ASV replaced by ranking based on IPCA1 scores only as follows: GSIi=RIPCA1i+RYi;GSIi=RIPCA1i+RYi; GSIi genotype stability index for the ith genotype across locations for each trait; A genotype with the lowest GSI for a given trait was considered to have the highest combined performance

and stability [20] and [22]. In the combined AMMI ANOVA, the genotype MS were highly significant (P < 0.001) for all the traits evaluated ( Table 2). The Thymidylate synthase MS for locations were highly significant (P < 0.001) for SRN; very significant (P < 0.01) for early FSRY; and significant (P < 0.05) for CMD-S. Genotype × environment MS were highly significant (P < 0.001) for SRN; very significant (P < 0.01) for CBSD-RN and CMD-S. The IPCA1 MS were highly significant (P < 0.001) for SRN; and significant (P < 0.05) for CBSD-RN and CMD-S. Early FSRY had non-significant IPCA1 MS (in association with a non-significant GEI) while the IPCA2 MS were non-significant for all traits. It was evident from the AMMI analysis that the % treatment SS attributed to genotypes was higher than that attributed to environments or to GEI for all the traits evaluated ( Table 2). For example, for early FSRY, 48.5% of the treatment sum of squares (SS) was attributed to genotypes, 27.3% to locations and 24.1% to GEI, and 0.1% to IPCA residual.

31, p < 0 0001 and one-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc comparison

31, p < 0.0001 and one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc comparisons showed detailed Anti-diabetic Compound Library clinical trial differences) and on PND10 only at 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[1,48] = 33.07, p < 0.0001). The number of crossings decreased in treated dams at 25,000 IU/kg/day (according to two-way ANOVA the exposure to retinyl palmitate affect the result, F[3,24] = 3.618, p = 0.0276) (Fig. 2A), but the number of center entries and rearings did not change (Figs. 2B and C, respectively). The number of groomings decreased

in treated dams at 12,500 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 4.104, p = 0.0174) (Fig. 2D). The number of freezings also increased in treated dams at 12,500 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 3.022, p = 0.0494) (Fig. 2E). However, the number of fecal boli did not change at all doses (Fig. 2F). Offspring of retinyl palmitate treated dams also showed significant alterations on OFT scores (Fig. 3). The number of crossings decreased in male treated offspring at 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day (according to two-way ANOVA the exposure to retinyl palmitate affect the result, F[3,48] = 5.098, p = 0.0038), but not in females (Fig. 3A). The number of center entries decreased in both treated offspring selleck products sex at all doses (F[3,48] = 11.81, p < 0.0001) (Fig. 3B). The number of rearings decreased in treated males at 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day

(F[3,48] = 6.520, p = 0.0009) (Fig. 3C). The number of groomings decreased in treated males at 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,48] = 4.708, p = 0.0058), but in females decreased only at 25,000 IU/kg/day (Fig. 3D). The number of freezings increased ASK1 in both treated offspring sex at 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,48] = 8.755, p < 0.0001) (Fig. 3E), but the number of fecal boli did not change at all doses (Fig. 3F). Striatum of retinyl palmitate treated dams showed significant alterations on the redox parameters analyzed (Table 3). Catalase (CAT) activity decreased in treated dams at 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 3.478, p = 0.0316), but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not change at all

doses. However, SOD/CAT ratio increased at 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 3.373, p = 0.0349). Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity increased in treated dams at 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 5.756, p = 0.0041), but total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) and reduced thiol content did not change at all retinyl palmitate treated dams. Lipoperoxidation increased in treated dams at 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 26.75, p < 0.0001) while protein carbonylation increased at 12,500 and 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 6.544, p = 0.0022). Hippocampus of retinyl palmitate treated dams also showed significant alterations on the redox parameters analyzed (Table 3). CAT activity and SOD activity did not change at all doses, but SOD/CAT ratio increased at 25,000 IU/kg/day (F[3,24] = 3.106, p = 0.0484).

There are also reservoirs on the Vistula itself, such as Goczałko

There are also reservoirs on the Vistula itself, such as Goczałkowice on the Mała Wisła (Small Vistula) and Włocławek on the lower Vistula. The disastrous 1934 flood prompted intensive work on the flood control system on the Vistula’s mountain tributaries. To reduce flood risk, flood protection reservoirs at Porąbka on the Soła (completed in 1936) and at Rożnów on the Dunajec (1941) were

constructed; half a century later, another reservoir was built at Czorsztyn on the Dunajec. The flood protection system in the Odra river basin consists of embankments, weirs, reservoirs (including dry flood protection reservoirs, i.e. polders), and relief channels. In the nineteenth century, the length of the River Odra from Racibórz to Schwedt was made 26.4% see more shorter by digging channels. Regulation has continued since then. There are 23 weirs

on the Odra itself (19 built before the end of World War Two), serving principally navigation and hydropower. There are also several reservoirs on the Czech tributaries of the Odra. However, the total capacity of water storage reservoirs in Poland is only 6% of the mean annual runoff. Several reservoirs are sited in the southern, highland, part of Poland, but in the lowlands, and Poland is a predominantly E7080 flatland country, construction of a dam necessitates the inundation of a larger area. There is a recognised need to strengthen flood protection systems for larger towns like Sandomierz on the Vistula and Opole and Wrocław on the Odra. Past floods such as those in 1997 and 2010 have exposed the inadequacy of existing structural defences. Structural measures physically modify the environment, whereas nonstructural measures change people’s behaviour. Indeed, we must change our behaviour (software), and not just build defences (hardware).

The Polish people are increasingly acknowledging the importance of non-structural flood protection. One of the options being considered HSP90 is watershed management (‘to keep the water where it falls’ and to reduce surface runoff and erosion) and the restoration of wetlands and flood-plain forests, re-connection of old river arms, and identification of areas-to-be-inundated in an emergency. There is a call to ‘give more space to the rivers’. Further, legal regulations are being implemented/envisaged related to the use of flood-plain areas, such as restrictions on new infrastructure and on handling substances dangerous to water in households. It is important to improve social awareness of the flood risk. Early warning (Kundzewicz 2012) is an important part of any flood preparedness system, reducing the destructive impact of floods on vulnerable areas in terms of lives and material damage.

The Spit shore consists of a foredune (white dune) and a beach wi

The Spit shore consists of a foredune (white dune) and a beach with locally occurring berm ridges and lagoons. The above-water Holocene dune ridges are built of wind-transformed marine sands (Tomczak 1995, Badiukova et al. 1996, Solovieva & Badiukova 1997). The shallow marine nearshore, the surf zone, is represented Bleomycin supplier by accumulative landforms such as shoals and longshore bars. The research area included two study sections: 1. the 55 km long stretch from the Strait of Baltiysk in the east to the village of Kąty Rybackie in the west was the object of comprehensive morphological and lithological research (Figure 1); 2. the two adjoining stretches – from Yantarny to the Strait

of Baltiysk (Sambian Peninsula) and from Kąty Rybackie to the

Vistula mouth (the western end of the Vistula Spit) – were studied with respect to coastal lithology only (Figure 1). The investigations involved the construction of shore and nearshore cross-profiles, grain-size analysis by dry sieving, and a lithodynamic interpretation of the results. 21 shore cross-profiles of the beach and the foredune were linked to a fixed geodetic benchmark: they were generated by a theodolite (3T5PK) in the eastern part, and by a tachymeter (TTS-500 Trimble) in the western part of the study area (Figure 1). 21 nearshore cross-profiles constituted the marine continuation of the coastal profiles, and were buy AZD6244 generated by an echo sounder (GPS Garmin 168 Sounder) in the eastern part of the Spit and a NAV net vx2 c-map NT MAX Foruno in the western part, with a 200 kHz signal (Figure 1). The acoustic devices were calibrated before the measurements were made. The maximum vertical error was calculated at 0.3 m, owing to the technical specifications and hydro-meteorological conditions during the research.

The minimum depth of the nearshore cross-profiles was dependent on the draught of the ships: it was 0.8–1 m in the western stretch and 2–5 m in the eastern part. The maximum depth was delimited by the 10 m isobath. The topographic and bathymetric data were interpolated by kriging in Golden Software Surfer 8.0. During the measurements, the average speed of SW-NW winds (72.9%) was 5 m s−1 and the average sea level was 509 cm, Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase according to the data supplied by the ARMAAG Foundation and Ecohydrodynamic Model of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk (Kowalewski 2002). The samples of surficial sediment were collected from the whole width of the beach according to the methodology used by the P. P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, RAS, and separately from the shore morphological forms: 30 cm depth (shallow nearshore), the waterline, a berm (if present), the centre and the upper part of the beach (the base of the foredune) (Figure 2). On the south-western (Polish) part of the Spit, nearshore sediment was collected from all bars and troughs.